Challenging service charges for leasehold properties

Last updated: August 2023 | 4 min read

What are service charges?

Service charges are payments made by leaseholders to their landlords or managing agents.

These payments go towards the upkeep, maintenance, and repair of the communal areas in leasehold properties.

Regular areas of expenditure encompassed in service charges include garden maintenance, building repairs, cleaning, insurance premiums, and management costs.

Fixed vs variable service charges

There are two main types of service charges: fixed and variable.

Fixed charges are set in stone and unchangeable regardless of the landlord's costs. For example, you might pay £100 per month for building upkeep services.

Conversely, variable service charges reflect the actual costs incurred by the landlord or the managing agent. These costs often fluctuate, leading to variable bills for leaseholders.

Structure of service charges

The structure of service charges typically follows a detailed framework outlined in the lease agreement.

It usually involves a breakdown of all the services provided, the costs related to each, and an accountant's adequate accounts for each accounting period.

Power to recover service charges

Under the UK's Landlord and Tenant Act, landlords have a right to recover service charges from leaseholders.

However, service charges paid are subject to specific legal requirements, including the landlord's ability to recover costs only if they are reasonable and detailed in the lease agreement.

The need for reasonableness in service charges

Reasonableness plays a pivotal part in the realm of service charges. The law necessitates that all service charges must be reasonable. Charges that do not meet a reasonable standard may be disputed by leaseholders.

What are reserve or 'sinking' funds?

A reserve or sinking fund is a pool of money gathered over time, generally through a portion of service charges paid by leaseholders.

This fund provides a financial buffer for covering large, unforeseen expenditures or long-term maintenance work in the building, ensuring the leaseholders' money is protected from sudden, expensive demands.

Understanding your lease and service charge provision

The legality of service charges

For a service charge to be legally recoverable, it must be explicitly specified in the lease and relate to relevant costs.

Any attempt to recover costs not defined within the lease may lead to disputes and potential legal proceedings.

Recovering service charges under the tenancy agreement

The tenancy agreement is the primary instrument guiding the recovery of service charges.

The agreement often details the specific services, the service charge provision, and how charges will be calculated and collected. It tells you what to expect.

It serves as the leaseholder's first reference point when addressing service charge disputes.

How landlords charge service charges: actual or estimated costs

Landlords typically charge service charges based on either actual or estimated costs. The latter is an advance payment based on an estimate of future costs, later adjusted to reflect the actual costs.

Leaseholders should scrutinise the accuracy of these estimates and adjustments, as they directly influence the service charge payable.

Managing agents

Sometimes, a management company handles the property's administration, including service charge collection, which influences how disputes are managed and resolved.

Professional managing agents might implement rigorous management and accounting practices, potentially ensuring a fairer allocation of costs.

On the other hand, landlords directly managing their properties might provide a more personalised but less structured approach to service charges.

In some cases, the managing agent acts for a residents management company, offering a unique dynamic to the service charge process.

Here, residents have a direct influence on management decisions, potentially leading to a more democratic handling of service charges and a lesser likelihood of disputes.

The extent and quality of management services provided can directly impact service charges. High-quality services often command higher costs.

A comprehensive management audit can help leaseholders ensure they're getting good value for the service charges they paid.

Ground rent vs service charges

Ground rent is the payment a leaseholder makes to the freeholder for leasing the land on which the property sits. It's often a fixed sum, stipulated in the lease, typically collected annually.

Its purpose is separate from that of service charges, as it doesn't relate to services or maintenance provided.

Service charges, on the other hand, are payments towards the landlord's costs of maintaining and providing services for the communal areas of the property, such as cleaning, repairs, insurance, and possibly a contribution to a reserve fund.

These charges are variable and contingent on actual costs incurred, providing an avenue for disputes over what is deemed 'reasonable'.

Issues with ground rent and how they affect service charges

Ground rent, although typically a smaller financial obligation, can escalate and pose significant issues. Some leases have terms that increase it over time, sometimes doubling every decade. An excessively high rent may impede your ability to sell the property or secure a mortgage.

Moreover, a landlord's failure to collect rent does not absolve leaseholders of service charges.

Disputing your service charge

Disputing a service charge can be a daunting task.

When to dispute a service charge

A dispute may arise when you, as a leaseholder, believe the service charge to be unreasonable, either in terms of cost or the quality of service provided.

You may also dispute if the charge deviates from the terms of the lease or if you suspect that costs have been artificially inflated.

Knowing the difference between 'actual' and 'estimated' service charges can aid your judgement on when to dispute.

Is the service charge demand in line with the lease?

According to the Landlord and Tenant Act 1985, a service charge is only payable to the extent that it is reasonably incurred and services are of a reasonable standard.

Always cross-check the service charge demand with your lease, which outlines the services the landlord can charge for, the proportion you should pay, and the method of calculation.

Analysing the service charge period

The accounting period for service charges is generally a year, though it may differ depending on your lease. Be vigilant in examining the period for which the service charge is levied, ensuring it aligns with the lease terms.

How to pay service charges in dispute: actual payment vs advance payments

If you dispute a service charge, it may be possible to withhold payment until the dispute is resolved.

However, this is risky, and professional advice should be sought. If the tribunal determines the charge to be reasonable, you would be obliged to pay it, possibly with interest.

Better, you should pay the charges in advance, then seek to recover them.

Application to the First-tier Tribunal (Property Chamber)

The First-tier Tribunal (Property Chamber) is an independent judicial body serving as a vital recourse for leaseholders questioning the reasonableness of their service charges.

The process of applying to the First-tier Tribunal

Applying to the tribunal is a measure that leaseholders can take when service charge disputes persist.

This legal channel allows them to question and contest service charges they believe are unfair or inflated.

Once an application is made, the tribunal examines the details of the disputed service charge, offering both the leaseholder and landlord a chance to provide evidence to justify their position.

It's worth noting that seeking legal advice before starting this process can help leaseholders prepare adequately and understand the likely outcomes of the tribunal. It is almost always better to find another way to resolve the issue.

The process involves submitting an application, paying a fee, and then presenting your case at a hearing.

The costs of the proceedings can vary, depending on the complexity of the case, the time it takes, and whether professional advice is sought.

Costs incurred could include legal fees, experts' fees, and the tribunal application fee itself.

While it's possible for leaseholders to represent themselves to reduce expenses, engaging a professional might lead to a more streamlined process and potentially successful outcome.

The general rule is that the lease dictates what costs can be recovered. Landlords can only recover costs if the lease expressly allows it.

In cases where the tribunal rules in favour of the leaseholder, it may make an order that the landlord cannot include their legal costs in future service charge demands.

Outcome scenarios of tribunal property cases

The possible outcomes at the end of the tribunal journey can vary widely.

The tribunal could rule in favour of the leaseholder, declaring certain service charges unreasonable.

Alternatively, it could rule that the service charges are justified, thereby validating the landlord's charges.

In some instances, the tribunal may partially uphold the leaseholder's challenge, resulting in an adjustment of the disputed service charge.

Whichever way the decision swings, it's crucial to remember that this process is fundamentally about ensuring fairness and transparency in the way service charges are levied.

Recognised Tenants Associations in service charge disputes

Often unsung heroes in disputes are the Recognised Tenants' Associations (RTAs).

An RTA is a formal group of leaseholders from the same property or estate, recognised either by the landlord or a rent assessment panel. Having this recognition amplifies the collective voice of the tenants, providing them with specific rights that can prove instrumental in disputes.

An RTA offers leaseholders collective bargaining power and access to information. These associations can formally request a summary of the service charge account and access to inspect receipts, accounts, and other documents supporting those accounts.

With this information, they can provide a detailed examination of service charges and potentially identify any discrepancies.

When an RTA requests access to documents, it sets in motion a specific process. Following the request, the landlord has one month to provide a summary of the service charge account.

Furthermore, within six months of receiving this summary, the RTA can ask to inspect the supporting accounts, receipts, and other relevant documents.

The landlord must make these documents available for inspection and provide facilities to take copies if required.

This information can help the RTA verify whether the service charges are justified and reasonable, lending strength to their collective voice in a service charge dispute.

Major works and additional funds requested by the landlord

Leasehold properties sometimes require major works, for which landlords might request additional funds.

These could be structural changes, extensive repairs or improvements that are often additional to regular maintenance costs that are usually included in the service charges.

How these costs relate to service charges

The costs for major works tend to have a significant bearing on service charges, often causing an unexpected hike.

As per the Landlord and Tenant Act, landlords must consult leaseholders if they plan works over £250 for any one leaseholder, or propose to enter a long-term agreement costing each leaseholder more than £100 per year (known as a qualifying long-term agreement).

Such consultation, known as a Section 20 consultation, can provide you with an opportunity to review and challenge these costs if deemed unreasonable.

Remember, just like routine service charges, the costs for these significant works should be reasonably incurred and the services or works must be of a reasonable standard. If you find discrepancies, questioning the legitimacy becomes your next logical step.

Future service charges and planning ahead

Future service charges can come as a surprise to many leaseholders, particularly when they include substantial costs for major works. Having a financial strategy in place can prevent these charges from becoming overwhelming.

How to deal with future service charges demands

Most leases allow landlords to collect service charges in advance, making it crucial for leaseholders to be proactive in requesting estimated charges for the upcoming year.

By having a clear understanding of future service charges, you're in a better position to budget accordingly and question any costs that appear disproportionate.

Regular monitoring of service charge accounts and prompt requests for explanations of significant increases can prevent future disputes.

Creating a sinking or reserve fund for unexpected service charges

Creating a sinking fund, also known as a reserve fund, serves as a buffer for unexpected service charges, offering financial security to leaseholders.

These funds are typically used to cover large scale repairs or replacements, which otherwise might necessitate a substantial one-off service charge.

Sinking funds are governed by the lease, hence the terms regarding contributions and usage can vary.

Understanding these terms and contributing regularly to a sinking fund can provide you with a financial cushion, ready to absorb the impact of large and unexpected service charges.

Remember, the management of sinking funds must be transparent, and leaseholders have the right to request a summary of the account.

Should you suspect mismanagement or misuse of these funds, professional advice from a solicitor or the Leasehold Advisory Service can guide you on the course of action, safeguarding your financial interests in the process.

Practical steps for challenging service charges

When faced with disputed service charge, initial actions can shape the course of the ensuing resolution. Being well-informed, proactive, and meticulously organised can be pivotal.

Begin with a thorough review of the tenancy agreement and service charge provision to clarify your liabilities. Subsequently, obtain a comprehensive breakdown of the service charge, scrutinising it for inconsistencies or unreasonable expenditures. When handling service charges, actual or estimated cost should reflect the actual costs incurred by the landlord.

By law, all service charges payable must be accompanied by a summary detailing how the costs were incurred, the tenants who must pay, and whether an accountant adequate accounts audited the charges.

If this summary is not provided, request it from the landlord, management company, or local housing authority, as per your context.

In case of non-compliance, you have the right to take the matter to court under the same act. Remember, a well-managed service charge dispute hinges on accurate documentation.

Should you feel overwhelmed, consider reaching out to professionals experienced in service charge disputes leasehold. They bring knowledge, expertise, and objective perspective, often saving you time, effort, and potentially, unnecessary expenses.


Protection of your rights as a leaseholder isn't an event, but a process. Being consistently informed and vigilant ensures you can respond promptly and effectively to any service charge issues.

Familiarise yourself with legislation relevant to leasehold properties and service charges, notably the Landlord and Tenant Act and the Housing Act.

Don't hesitate to challenge service charge demands that seem exorbitant or unjustified.

You can apply to the First Tier Tribunal Property Chamber to have a service charge evaluated for its reasonableness. Ensure to explore this option if negotiation attempts with the landlord or managing agent fail.

Further, take an active interest in the property management. Join a Recognised Tenants’ Association if one exists for your property. Such associations can collectively negotiate with the landlord on service charges and other matters, amplifying individual leaseholder's influence.

In summary, your rights as a leaseholder, while firmly enshrined in UK law, rely on your vigilance and proactive action to be truly effective. By knowing your obligations and rights, maintaining open communication channels with your landlord or their agent, and taking prompt action when issues arise, you can confidently tackle service charges and ensure they reflect a reasonable standard of expenditure.

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